Sunday, 26 May 2013

Political Activities of Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots, 1945-58. Part Two: The policy of partition

Below is the second part of the series of posts I’m publishing from Stella Soulioti’s Fettered Independence: Cyprus, 1878-1964, demonstrating how Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots developed a policy of partition regarding Cyprus and organised a campaign of violent ethnic conflict in pursuit of this objective. Partition was a revision of Turkey’s previous policy, which was that should Britain relinquish sovereignty over Cyprus, then Turkey should be allowed to annex the entire island.

(Read part one in the series here). 

Turkish Political Objective of Partition Formulated
By 1957 the Turks had formulated their political objective clearly: the partition of Cyprus, which they set out to achieve by:

    •    establishing a separate identity for the Turkish Cypriots;
    •    demonstrating that coexistence between the Greek Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots was impossible, and that they must therefore be physically separated; and
    •    creating territorial division between the two communities which were interspersed throughout the island.

The above goals have persisted as the cornerstone of Turkish and Turkish Cypriot policy over the years.

The arm used to apply the policy was [the terrorist group] TMT, under the slogan ‘Partition or Death.’ The partition line was set at the 35th Parallel, dividing Cyprus roughly in half. Posters, showing the island partitioned, with the superimposed figure of a Turkish soldier, were displayed everywhere.

A booklet entitled The Cyprus Question – A Permanent Solution, issued in October 1957 by [Fazil] Kutchuk, then chairman of the Cyprus-is-Turkish Party, spells out the Turkish policy in unequivocal terms. The cover of the booklet shows Cyprus partitioned in half. The following excerpts are revealing;

Equal rights is what we want and equal rights mean nothing but partition.

Turkey has, in fairness and magnanimity, consented to Partition for the sake of permanent peace in the area. Thus, the two countries [Greece and Turkey] which are friendly frontier-neighbours will extend their frontiers across Cyprus and the Communist foothold in the island will thus be prevented and the Turkish foothold will safeguard the breathing space for Turkey and her allies in the event of war.

Such partitioning will not involve the compulsory exchange of populations. Each man will be able to live in his own place feeling assured that his country is next door to protect his rights and interests. Two responsible governments will keep the extremists in their group under constant control.

Turkey has, in fairness and in complete recognition of her duty to maintain peace in the area and good relations with her neighbours, decided to abandon her claim to the whole of Cyprus and accepted the solution of partition as a fair basis for settlement.

She [Greece] has got no case on Cyprus and… unless she consents to partition Turkey will have the right to move into the island the moment Britain withdraws.

By the end of December 1956, Turkey, being aware that Britain had begun to consider partition as a possible solution, demanded partition at every opportunity. Kutchuk, who visited Ankara (2 April-10 May 1957) to consult with the Turkish government, said in a press statement on 3 April 1957 that enmity between the two communities in Cyprus had reached such a pitch that they could not possibly coexist under the same regime, and the only acceptable solution, therefore, was partition. On 3 February 1958, on his return to Nicosia from another visit to Ankara, Kutchuk said that taksim [partition] was ‘One thousand percent certain’, and that ‘if our own force in Cyprus proves inadequate, our fatherland is ready to come to our aid’.

On 8 June 1958, the Turkish foreign ministry issued a statement that the Turkish government had come to a ‘full and mature decision to bring about the partition of Cyprus’ as the only means of ensuring Turkey’s own security. On the same day, there was a big demonstration in Istanbul in support of taksim, with speeches against Greece and Britain and the burning of an effigy of Archbishop Makarios. The speakers included Kutchuk, who stressed the impossibility of Greek and Turkish Cypriots living together and claimed the question was no longer one for the Turkish Cypriots but ‘for 26 million Turks’. Kutchuk kept up the pressure for partition, along the 35th parallel.

(Read parts three and four in series).

Read the entire series in one post here.


PhilippouApogonos said...

Congratulations. These facts are essential to understand Anglo-Turkish policy on Cyprus in the 1950's,1960's and right trough to the invasion, the Anan plan monstrosity and the current attempts to tie the Republic of Cyprus down to the troika, take control of natural gas and impose a worse version of Anan via Anastasiadis,and all his pro-Anan advisors in the presidential palace and most of his ministers. These are dangerous times and the treason is on a large scale.
I lived through the events Souliotis describes in the 50s and 60s . The men of the neighbourhood in enoria Ayios Savvas within the walls of Nicosia would sleep on roof tops every night for fear of Turkish mobs encouraged by the British to attack Greek neighbourhood and burn them down.
The pro-Turkish role of the British in Cyprus then as now is critical.
I saw personally a memo from Winston Churchill in 1940 saying :"Why should we give Cyprus to Greece when we have the Turkish element to play with?"

John Akritas said...

Yes, the Turkish narrative – which unfortunately has gained some currency, even among Greek Cypriots – is that, in the 1950s and 1960s, the Turkish Cypriots were minding their own business and that it was the Greek Cypriots, in fanatical pursuit of enosis, who brought about ethnic conflict, essentially attacking the Turkish Cypriots, trying to drive them from the island in order to unite Cyprus with Greece. Such a narrative is ridiculous and utterly false.

PhilippouApogonos said...

I agree entirely.The narrative you describe has spread to many so called progressive Greek Cypriots both within Akel but also on the right. Christofias refered many times to the Greek Cypriots as responsible for the coup and the invasion , hence also occupation, because of their "oppression" of the Turkish Cypriots.
So must pay the price- accept the realities on the ground. But this is ALSO the line of the top intellectuals in Syriza and Pasok for the last 15 years and gave them license to pursue the Anan plan with no remorse or second thoughts. I know who. These people served under GAPapandreou when he was Education Minister and when he was Foreign Minister. Large sums were distributed by his Ministry to these people to support the Anan plan before during and after 2004.(See for example ELIAMEP, and several Profs in Panteion until today) Until today any reference by a Greek or Greek Cypriot to "Then Xechno" is treated with utter contempt within Syriza and Pasok , with the standard response being ..why do you not remember the persecutions suffered by the poor T/Cs.It is nauseating.
My father was in same school as Denktash in the 1930s/40s. The English school. He remembers him clearly until today: His grandmother was Greek, but he absolutely hated and despised Greek Cypriots at school.He was the favourite of the English School's British Director, and was then sent by the British to study law in UK. In the 1950s he was ready to serve the British as prosecutor against EOKA. He admitted to Christopher Hitchens that he was in fact the leader of TMT since 1954 and into the 1960's.

I am certain he played a key role in organising and leading conflict in the 1950's, 1960s to prove Greeks and Turks could not live together and he threatened and punished any T/C who was friendly to Greeks.In the period to 1963/4 and subsequently he was organising SELF-IMPOSED enclaves of T/ from old Nicosia and the region leading to Kyrenia.
Senator Edward Kennedy conducted an investigation into these activities in 1963/4 on behalf of the US Senate and concluded that the Turkish Cypriot leadership were deliberately creating enclaves and segregating T/Cs on fear of extreme punishment meted out by Denktash and his clique.I have the Report.
In 1963/4 I was in the Gymnasium in Nicosia. I remember clearly the beginning of conflict when the T/Cs were armed to the teeth by the British ready to attack after the British Ambassador encouraged Makarios to table 13 amendments to the unworkable Zurich constitution forced by the British on the new Republic of Cyprus. The Greek Cypriots only had police officers and I remember men running around desperately trying to find hunting rifles to be able to respond to the T/Cs.
We must study very carefully Turkish and British strategy on Cyprus..from the 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s.. leading up to 1974 ..and Anglo-Turkish strategy leading to Anan, Christofias and now Anastasiadis. The very last thing the Turks, the British, the Germans or Americans want is a Republic of Cyprus with access to natural gas revenues , a strong economy and impenetrable defence. They will do anything to stop this from happening in Cyprus and Greece.
What do the Turks want now? Partition? A new worse Anan with a banana republic , control of north, a say in south and control of natural gas. Plus ofcourse a totally unworkable racist constitution between two "equal " states..hence within 2-3 years further incidents on the line of 1963/64 and the final Turkification of Cyprus.Partition is the last thing Turkey wants now. We need to be ready for a final Anglo-Turkish push for the Turkification of Cyprus by any means they can. Unfortunately there are many traitors on our side both on left and right who are willing to serve Turkish and British Plans.However, there are even more who will fight against this to the end.
It is a very dangerous period for the future of Hellenism in Greece and Cyprus.I fear for our very survival .

John Akritas said...

Your understanding of the actions of the TCs and Denktash during this period chimes with mine, and it is also clear to me, as you say, that GCs are being told that they now deserve this bizonal, bicommunal nonsense to pay for the sins of 1. Wanting enosis. 2. The persecution of the Turkish Cypriots. But what if enosis was a legitimate demand – which it was; and what if there was no persecution of the Turkish Cypriots – which there wasn’t? On what grounds are GCs supposed to accept the consequences of the Turkish invasion and Annan-type solutions? If the sins the GCs are accused of are false or exaggerated, then why should they accept the punishment they’re being asked to accept?

Also, your description of the TCs being armed to the teeth by 1963 is well documented by Soulioti in her book. She describes how the GCs were slow to respond to the evidence that the TCs were arming themselves and being guided by Turkish army officers, and how GCs scrambled to find arms and come up with plans to protect themselves. Thus, the idea that the Christmas 1963 events were a coordinated attempt by GCs to suppress the TCs is absurd, an inversion of the truth.

PhilippouApogonos said...

With regard to enosis , if we look at several publications in the 1920's and 30's , eg Foreign Affairs , Cyprus was one of several unquestionably Greek islands that were to be given to Greece. At same time the movement for enosis was very strong within the Greek Cypriots throughout the 20th Century , ofcourse rooted in deep understanding of ethnicity, hellenic culture , religion, history and understanding of the "genos" by every Greek Cypriot villager for centuries.
I was born under the British occupation of Cyprus. I grew up with soldiers and curfews in Nicosia. In 1950 there was a major Referendum on Enosis . My father confirms that 98% of the population including many T/Cs voted for Enosis. I knew from the age of 4-5 that I was a Greek and so where all my friends in the Elenion school.We raised the Greek flag and then British soldiers came in and took it down and put the British flag and closed the school down for 2-3 weeks at a time.
The T/Cs had nothing to do with the wish of the Greek population to unite with Greece. Self Determination is a basic tenet of the United Nations. Mr Cameron has brought it out of the darkness of the Foreign Office to advocate it for the people the Falklands. However the British viciously opposed this principle for the Greeks of Cyprus.
The T/Cs were brought into play by the British in the 1950's in a clear divide and rule policy. Turkey and the T/Cs initiated the attacks on G/Cs . I remember many T/Cs being made police officers under British rule with license to kill and attack. My father nearly died in Ermou street when T/C policemen were shooting at unarmed Greek Cypriots . And the riots you describe in Constantinoupolis against the Greeks were financed by British intelligence using also Turkish newspapers.
Why should I not feel , think, be a Greek? Why should I not want to unite with Greece in the 1950s?
Saying this or actually saying I am a Greek has become a crime , is equated with dangerous nationalism, aggression towards T/Cs , misguided, now we have groups in Cyprus who deny their history and culture Plus consider there is another race or ethnos..a Cypriot race. This is peddled by the Communists and a treasonous section of the right ...we are all apparently a weird concoction of Phoenecians and several other races..Hence , we now have in Cyprus this weird group of 600,000 Cypriots ( the Greeks who dont dare speak their name) not connected to Hellenism or Greece..200,000 other EU immigrants..and on the other side..100,000 T/C ,40,000 Turkish soldiers, and from latest figures/guesses in Fileleftheros 800,000-900,000 epikous ..yes, 900,000.
The Turks and British have succeeded in confusing, disorientating, weakening, disconnecting the Greeks from their roots and history and the rest of Hellenism. There are now 600,000 Greek Cypriots many of which hate to be told they are Greek , believe they are alone, a newly discovered race . and they are too weak to resist Turkey .

PhilippouApogonos said...

So, you can see where this is going. If we are Greeks and say we are Greeks we are ethnikistes, dangerous and we attack T/Cs. The truth is the opposite but the argument is prevalent now.
We brought all this on ourselves because we believed, wrongly, we are Greek and wanted to unite with Greece.
We brought it on ourselves because we attacked T/Cs and committed crimes, hence we deserve to pay for this, loose land and rights. The "poor" suffering T/Cs ( not from Turkish army and epikous) , but by us ,the pseudo deluded dangerous Greeks. So we must accept a solution on the lines of Anan, and give to the T/Cs everything they want because we wronged them. Moreover , we are so few, how can we take on the superpower Turkey. We have no choice but to accept the invasion. sign over the land to T/Cs and Turkey..and also give them much of the natural gas..indeed send it through via Turkey. Why? Because if we lie down and let Turkey walk over us , do not present them with problems and give them the natural gas, then they might allow us, the confused strange conglommeration of races 600,000 to exist in Cyprus. This is not an exaggeration. I have heard these same arguments from many highly educated people in Cyprus.
If these are right wing, Politis, Alithia readers, then they hope with this to get rid of the stigma of the coup and treason, and retain the financial gains and posts they possess in Cyprus.
If these are Communists ( Haravghi readers ) the position is that we need to live with our T/C brothers/workers in peace. They have the dream/ ideological position that T/C trade unionists and G/C trade unionists and communists will take control of the island with workers united ( the Christofias-Talat pro-Anan fantasy ). Haravghi is full of "progressive" analysis of the suffering of T/Cs in the hands of G/Cs, while Christofias was doing everything he can to impose an Anan type solution on the G/C population who stupidly thought they were Greek.

PhilippouApogonos said...

It is shocking for somebody living in the UK for 40 years to look at the current state of debate in Cyprus. What happened? It is total madness.

The starting point of the enquiry you have began here is crucial and I agree with it totally. I am also trying to understand (Anglo) Turkish strategy from the 1950s until today. Why ?
Because ,firstly, the nonsense of Anan type solutions do not answer how such solutions meet the strategic needs of Turkey and the UK( let alone Germany and USA , let alone Israel)and if they are but a trap, a strategic step in achieving the ultimate objective of total Anglo-Turkish control over the island. Imposing the monstrosity discussed by Christofias and Talat/Eroglou for 5 years will simple lead to dissolution of Republic of Cyprus, removal of G/C army, legalise Turkish occupation and open the road to incidents which will enable Turkey to simply walk over the whole of the island, while the G/C emigrate.
Secondly because the nonsense put forward by the morons on the left and right , financed by NGOs , which attempt to dissolve the Hellenic roots of G/C conscience , history, culture,and cultivate defeatism and isolationism MUST be answered and stopped. Enough of this rubbish.
We must watch Anastasiadis and his Anan conspirators like hawks. How did we reach stage in which the rejection of Anan by 76% ..was secretly promoted again by President Christofias..and then another pro-Anan President voted in to try again. It is madness and collective suicide.
I appeal to every young Greek and G/C in the Diaspora and inside Greece and Cyprus with even a modicum of self-respect to study study study, write, and resist fiercely all these Anglo-Turkish attempts to cut us off our culture and genes and hand us over to Turkey.
In case readers think I am exaggerating : See trendy little objective journalist Konstantinou writing in Politis last week: he and rest of Cypriots are NOT Greek. No. They are a mixture of Phoenicians,Turks,Armenians, Arabs, and Greeks. There are no Greek Greek Cypriots.Those who say they are are an object of derision.."ellinares"..ethnikistes. Here it is. The Politis contribution to the attempted Turkification of Cyprus in 2013.

John Akritas said...

You’re not going to get any disagreement from me. There is no such thing as a Cypriot race or a Cypriot nation. Cyprus is Greek and Cypriots are Greek, are a quintessential part of the Greek race and nation – whether we like it or not.

PhilippouApogonos said...

An excerpt of article appearing on appearing today

Παρ’ όλα αυτά οι επιστήμες προοδεύουν. Σήμερα οι έρευνες πάνω στην ιστορία των λαών δεν περιορίζονται μόνο στα ιστορικά και αρχαιολογικά δεδομένα. Πολλές επιστήμες επιστρατεύονται για την εξαγωγή ακριβέστερων και πιο αντικειμενικών συμπερασμάτων πάνω στην ανθρώπινη ιστορία. Μια απο αυτές τις επιστήμες είναι και η γενετική, η οποία είναι και η ακριβεστέρα όλων. Όλοι γνωρίζουμε ότι η μελέτη του DNA, αποκαλύπτει την καταγωγή και χρησιμοποιείται από την παλαιοντολογία μέχρι την αστυνομία.
Εχουν γίνει τέτοιου είδους έρευνες που να αποδεικνύουν οτι είμαστε πάντα Έλληνες;
Βεβαίως έχουν γίνει και μάλιστα επίσημες πανεπιστημιακές αλλά δεν έχουν προβληθεί παρά ελάχιστα.


Επι πολλά έτη λοιπόν γενετιστές απο ευρωπαϊκά πανεπιστημιακά ερευνητικά κέντρα μελέτησαν το μιτοχονδριακό DNA των σημερινών πληθυσμών της Ευρώπης και της Εγγύς Ανατολής και ανακάλυψαν τις σχέσεις που τους συνέδεαν πρίν απο 75.000 χρόνια.

Συγκεκριμένα: Εικοσι οκτώ(28) πανεπιστήμια της Ευρώπης ξεκίνησαν το 1990, υπο την αιγίδα του Πανεπιστημίου της Οξφόρδης. Συμμετείχαν οι χώρες: Αγγλία, Ιταλία, Ρωσία, Γερμανία, Δανία, Ιρλανδία, Ρουμανία, Τσεχία, Ισραήλ, Εσθονία, Ιράκ, Συρία. Εκαναν έρευνες DNA για τους κατοίκους της Ευρώπης. Απο πλευράς Ελλάδας συμμετείχει το Τμήμα Γενετικής και Μοριακής Βιολογίας του Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης υπο τον καθηγητή Κωνσταντίνο Τριανταφυλλίδη. Η έρευνα αυτή ήταν άκρως ενδιαφέρουσα, διότι απέδειξε οτι οι σημερινοί κάτοικοι της Ελλάδος είναι απευθείας απόγονοι των αρχαίων Ελλήνων. Συγκεκριμένα απέδειξε ότι σε ποσοστό 70% οι σημερινοί Έλληνες έχουν το ίδιο DNA, με τους αυτόχθονες κατοίκους της Ελλάδας της προϊστορικής εποχής.

Το υπόλοιπο 30% από περιοχές της Εγγύς Ανατολής και προσδιορίζονται χρονικά στα νεολιθικά χρόνια. οι οποίες έχει αποδειχθεί ότι κατοικούνταν ελληνικά φύλα. Όπως καταλαβαίνετε η έρευνα λέει με απλά λόγια, ότι οι πρόγονοι του Περικλή, του Σωκράτη, του Αριστοτέλη και εμείς, έχουμε το ίδιο DNA. Σε ποσοστό που αγγίζει το 99,5%. Γιατί η έρευνα αυτή δεν προβλήθηκε από τα ΜΜΕ; Γιατί δεν πέρασε στην εκπαιδευτική ύλη; Ποιος ρυθμίζει τι διδάσκεται και τι αποσιωπάται;

Η έρευνα αυτή δημοσιεύτηκε στην «Καθημερινή» της 8ης Δεκεμβρίου του 2000.
Επίσης στον «Ταχυδρόμο» της 2ας Απριλίου 2005.

Αλλη μια έρευνα έγινε απο το Πανεπιστήμιο του Στάνφορντ των ΗΠΑ και της Παβίας της Ιταλίας. Η έρευνα δημοσιεύθηκε στην εφημερίδα «Απογευματινή της Κυριακής» της 6ης Νοεμβρίου 2005. Το δημοσίευμα είχε τίτλο «Καθαρο το DNA των Ελλήνων». Το δημοσίευμα απαντά ευθέως στον περιβόητο Φαλμεράϋερ(υπενθυμίζουμε ότι σύμφωνα με τη θεωρία του Φαλμεράϋερ οι Έλληνες του 19ου αιώνα, άρα και οι σημερινοί ήταν Σλάβοι και Αλβανοί και ότι δεν είχαν καμία φυλετική σχέση με τους αρχαίους Έλληνες). Στην έρευνα αυτή συμμετείχαν και ο κ. Τριανταφυλλίδης με την ερευνητική του ομάδα, απο το ΑΠΘ.

Ιδιαίτερη σημασία έχει το γεγονός ότι η έρευνα απέδειξε ότι η θεωρία του Φαλμεράϋερ είναι λανθασμένη. Συγκεκριμένα απέδειξε ότι οι Έλληνες παρ΄’ όλα τα 400 χρόνια σκλαβιάς στους Τούρκους, δεν αλλοιώθηκαν γενετικά.

Όποιοι θέλουν να δούν περισσότερα στοιχεία, πρέπει να διαβάσουν το βιβλίο του κ. Τριανταφυλλίδη «Η ΓΕΝΕΤΙΚΗ ΣΥΣΤΑΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΟΙΚΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣ» από τις εκδόσεις «Γαληνος». Υπάρχει όμως ένα ακόμη βιβλίο, πιο εκλαϊκευμένο, το «ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΑΕΙ ΕΣΜΕΝ» των εκδόσεων «Κάδμος».

Υ.Γ: Γράψαμε αυτό το άρθρο, από καθαρή αντίδραση προς το Υπουργείο Παιδείας και προς όλους τους θολοκουλτουριάρηδες, που προσπαθούν να μας πείσουν ότι δεν είμαστε Έλληνες.

Αρης Ηλίας – Γιάννης Κουτσούρης – Δημ. Παπαδόπουλος – Τάσος Σαλβάνος


John Akritas said...

We don't really need genetics and DNA tests to prove these things.

Hermes said...

Quite brilliant, PhillipouApogonos. It's funny, in the Diaspora, it is almost impossible to distinguish between mainland Greek from Greek Cypriot (apart from the accents). But then again this also applies to Greek Pontians and Cretans and so on. However, there has been a noticeable growth in a supposed separate Cypriot consciousness. But we really only have ourselves to blame in allowing British manipulations to take hold.